• A Thought for the Century

    Friends,

    Howsoever briefly I do this, I would like to pose the question and try to answer it to some extent in my own way - what is archaeological fiction? How is it relevant? Who is qualified to write it? Who would the likely readers be? Specialists? The Public?

    Here are some definitions of this phrase or term which are available online:

    http://archaeology.about.com/od/fictionstoriesandnovels/

    http://www.goodreads.com/shelf/show/archaeological-fiction

    http://www.barnesandnoble.com/s/?category_id=718858

    Okay?

    ..................

    Thank you,

    Ajay

  • Human Evolution in India: A Review

    Human Evolution in India: A Review

    By

    Ajay Pratap,
    Professor,
    Department of History,
    Faculty of Social Sciences,
    Banaras Hindu University,
    Varanasi - 221 005

    Friends,

    As I understand, there are some front-runner researchers (Dennell, Mellars, Pappu, Singh,) understanding whose work is central to this enterprise of evaluating the status of human origins research in India. Research on the earliest human or hominin presence (Kennedy, Pappu) must not be confused with research on the evidence related with the presence of earliest modern humans in India (Mellars, Singh).

    We shall turn first to assess the archaeogenetic evidence. This is mainly since this is in India a still emerging field or approach and true to its worldwide reputation it is yielding some astounding and archaeologically most relevant conclusions, insofar as Human Evolution in India is concerned.

    Herewith, therefore, some pertinent reading material, for your reading pleasure.

    I shall enjoy de-mystifying some of the jargon, though, which has not already been dealt with herein.

    Read on.

    Reich, Thangaraj, Patterson, Price and Lalji Singh

    Keywords (mine): History, Indian, Population, K.A.R. Kennedy, Archaeogenetics,

    K.A.R. Kennedy

    (Author's note: Dear students of B.A. Part-I class. Please read K.A.R. Kennedy's article page 394 onwards. Thanks. Ajay)

    Mol Biol Evol-2012-Gallego Romero-249-60

    Agrawal, Bhatt, Kusumgar, Pant

    What is the meaning of?

    Polymorphism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymorphism_in_object-oriented_programming

    Genotyped: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genotyping

    Clusters: http://www.techterms.com/definition/cluster

    Sampled: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sampling_(statistics)

    Caste: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste

    Tribe: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribe

    Human Genome Diversity Panel: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Genome_Diversity_Project

    Allele frequency differentiation: http://userwww.sfsu.edu/efc/classes/biol710/amova/amova.htm

    HapMap: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HapMap

    Principal component analysis (PCA): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principal_component_analysis

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-nucleotide_polymorphism

    Endogamy: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endogamy

    Genetic signatures: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_signature

    Gene flows: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_flow

    Substructure: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substructure

    Genetic ancestry: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genealogical_DNA_test

    Genetic clusters: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gene_cluster

    Founder event or effect: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Founder_event

    1. The very first point I would like to make in this regard, as a preface, is that this is a very novel piece of work. Why do I say so?

    2. As an Indian Archaeologist, who has been looking at our Indian Archaeology and Indian Prehistory in particular, since 1979, I find that the issue of human origins on the Indian Subcontinent is a much neglected subject, the plethora of archaeological evidence notwithstanding.

    3. From the discovery of the earliest Soan Valley Acheulean Assemblages discovered by De Terra and Patterson (the famous Yale-Cambridge Expedition) of 1930s, to the more recent ones at Attirampakkam, we have heard about the discoveries of Acheulean stone-tool assemblages ad nauseum.

    4. Ad nauseum, because, as with me, even though Professor K. Paddayya, Professor M.K. Dhavalikar, Professor V.N. Misra and Professor M.L.K. Murty laboured us ceaselessly to believe that after all India too had a distinct Acheulean tradition, in the absence of clear evidence, such as of the archaeogenetic type evidence present in this research article at hand, it was indeed very difficult to buy this argument. There is K.A.R. Kennedy's paper (here uploaded, and by the way for the umpteenth time here on this Blog I feel pushed to raise again the issue of whether the Harvard Citation System has sought to include a citation system for Blog-writing? no doubt, I shall also go through the above post and the urls indicated to find an answer) which deals with the fossil human skeletal remains of South Asia, however, even this suggests that the relevant fossil human remains pertaining to Homo zinjanthropus, Homo habilis and ultimately Homo erectus are clearly not found in appreciable quantities in south Asia. Therefore, as M.A. students, we generally had to walk away from such lectures, assuming that such Acheulean assemblages as are found in India must all have been somehow imported stone tool-technology from Africa to India. These could not possibly have been the product of genuine early hominids/hominins that produced these locally, which is to say in the Soan Valley and elsewhere.

    5. If you read Professor H.D. Sankalia's monumental work the Pre and Proto-History of India and Pakistan, and this work is very rightly regarded as a bible for Indian prehistorians, then you would no doubt notice that the very earliest of stone-tool technology of the Old Stone Age, the Lower Palaeolithic, are not only abundant in India, but they are also very evenly spread all over this continental shelf, from Kashmir to Kanyakumari.

    6. Thus it is that prehistorians like us, some thirty years after the 1970s, come to a dead-stop, a cul-de-sac, wondering why it has taken this long to think that the earliest of the humans did actually exist on this continent.

    7. However, that is another story.

    8. Let us return to discussing the paper at hand.

    9. As a teacher of Ancient India History at the Banaras Hindu University, of approximately nine years standing, and constantly on the look-out for new material to be discussing in the B.A. Part I class, mentioned before in this post, I distinctly remember that one of the English Language Dailies of Banaras carried a news item which caught my attention, very squarish-ly, some four or so years ago. It was titled "Not Much Difference between Aryans and Dravidians" or some header to that effect. I read and re-read that and even discussed it with my departmental colleagues ad nauseum, and then proceeded to lecture the then class of my Ist Year students about the most remarkable paradigm-shift which had occurred in our understanding of the ancestry of the human groups of Indian, thus far quite incorrectly classified into "Races", by 18th and 19th century anthropologists, historians, geographers and many scholars of a most diverse range of callings, and most of which provide an extremely mirthful corpus of readings today. Of course, you may well like to ask me why then there still exist in India many most scholarly journals devoted to Craniometry and Dermatoglyphics; however, I should then like to say, that most certainly I am in no way responsible for all of this world's ills. In England, as they say before you in a party, "Name your Poison!"

    10. See also http://www.sas.upenn.edu/anthro/ for a consideration of the term "Race".

    11. Leaving aside then this debate about which parts of Physical Anthropology hold still relevance today, and just how much inherent sociobiology and socio-politics informs Physical Anthropological Research in this 21st century...this review of the article above would now like to move onto more substantive issues.

    12. Nearly the only valid opening idea of this article which we find admissible is "that India contains deep-rooted lineages which share no common ancestry with groups outside of South Asia for tens of thousands of years." However, tens of thousands of years sort of turn of phrase means nothing in particular as it is more rhetorical and therefore quite imprecise, chronologically speaking.

    13. If the above point deals largely with the opening para of this most learned of articles, then the two subsequent ones, to my mind, reveal, in the final or ultimate analysis that the authors here, of this learned article are trying to grapple with the truth-content of the hypothesized theory of discrete racial structure of the Indian Population, which was an idea largely advanced through nearly two centuries of colonial physical anthropological assays of the Indian Population which (H.H. Risley, W.W. Hunter etc.) always categorized into the Aryan, Mongoloid or Proto-Mogoloid, Austro-Asiatic, Australoid, Caucasian, Proto-Australoid and such discrete groups based on measures such as Dolichocephalism and Brachecephally, the nasal index measurements, dermatoglyphic variations, hair-types, which is to say largely outward appearance of various linguistically and culturally distinct groups of Indian peoples. Clearly then, the approach of the present authors is at a great remove from the earlier approach to racial classification enshrined in such great works as Risley's on the Races and Cultures of India and W.W. Hunter's classic work The Annals of Rural Bengal.

    14. Before you proceed to the next paragraph, in this most learned article, I would remind you that if you very quickly like to familiarize yourself with the various castes and tribes of India, as currently understood by us, then you would do well to do the readings indicated in the bibliography of this work and which are namely Singh, K.S. (1993, and 1994), which as a matter of fact is a state-wise state-of-the-art classification and enumeration of the socio-cultural specificity of every caste and tribe of India. A handy lead to this most rich storehouse of information on the Indian Castes and Tribes, as enumerated in the works referred to above may be found at the following URL:

    Courtesy URL: http://www.ansi.gov.in/people_india.htm

    15. The following section on page number 489 reports on the results of the hypotheses which are but very briefly posed in the concluding para of the previous section, which we have been discussing until now, in an explicatory mode for the benefit of my B.A. Part I students. It would seem from the questions enumerated in the para that the authors would like to see if there is specific genetic or DNA signature caste-wise and tribe-wise, from a sample of the Indian population.

    16. The following para begins to elucidate the results of such genetic sampling of assumedly or presumably discrete cultural groups such as castes and tribes. Here, in my most humble opinion, there is Dear Students, absolutely no need whatsoever, to get daunted by such terms as Principal Component Analysis and Fst etc. What is basically, and most fundamentally being said in the para on the right-margin of page 489 is that the authors did find significant genetic signatures to the DNA types extracted from such groups as they have discussed. In the Siddi case, for instance, it has been hypothesized even ethnographically that they have been migrants from Africa, and lo and behold the authors have detected that their genetic signatures correspond with an African sort of ancestry. In the case of Nyshi, Ao and Naga tribes they have found that their genetic or DNA signatures correspond with or have ancestry links with the Chinese type but then again I have myself had the chance to see a book edited by Drs. J.P. Singh and G. Sengupta on the ethnohistory of the culture-groups of the North-East of India where their South-East Asian cultural links are demonstrated not only in terms of their oral tradition and extant historical records, but there is also, as Singh and Sengupta discuss, an affinity in the stone tool-kits of North-Eastern India and those of South-East Asia with sites like Ban-Chiang and Knon Knok Tha. Minimally, therefore, and as you may well see, how the work of the present authors has served most scientifically to corroborate what were, some would say, previously only archaeological and ethnohistorical hypotheses. Finally, and still sticking to the parameters this post has set for itself, we have to suggest that for all that you may learn about principal component analysis from the url given above in this post, this method in statistics is one which helps you sort out the distinct components of a system, whichever type of system it is. Finally, as it is said in Systems Theory, and it would be useful, Dear Students, to re-capitulate that here: the sum of the parts of a system is greater than the whole! Try reading David L. Clarke's Analytical Archaeology, for instance.

    17. We now move to consider the further parts of this most learned of article. The remainder of page 480 and the table and the first para on the following page 481 lead us to behold a fantastic claim. This is that the present authors seem to think that caste lineages which were sampled seem to have founder events which go back to earlier than 30 generations (pp. 480). I am inclined to take a generation at 100 years so the product regarding the antiquity of a majority of caste and tribe groups' founder events rests at around 3,000 years (Vysya being an exception to this rule!). The authors state that this could be possible only because of endogamy which leaves, according to them, distinct genetic signatures in the Allele.

    18. Dear Students, as I have had the benefit of having sat through Dr. Lalji Singh's Inaugural Lecture, at the Swatantrata Bhawan, BHU, and to have listened very carefully to this lecture, I wish here to add that in that lecture he had posited that the origin of Caste and Tribes in India may well go back to the end of the last Ice-Age, which is the Terminal Pleistocene. As Climate Change ensued and a warmer climate started with the Holocene perhaps changes in Biota caused faunal migration and a largely Upper Palaeolithic sort of Indian Society at the time , which then were largely all Tribes and forest-dwelling, found it reasonable to migrate into River Valleys, hunt out the last of the mega and other fauna and then as they were busy doing this say between c. 10,000 BCE to about the c. 4,000 BCE, which is the Mesolithic, of which there are more than enough sites in the Mid-Ganga-Plains, they gradually, and due to the paucity of any further fauna, domesticated wild species of plants and animals, and started, that is with the Neolithic, a sedentary-farming lifestyle. To sum up, he added that those who chose to remain in the hills and forests, and the rock art from the Vindhyas does suggest that people had lived up there right into the Iron-Age, which would be well past the Neolithic and the Chalcolithic too, became in due course Tribes, and those that migrated down from the Vindhyas at the start of the Holocene at around c. 10,000 BCE in due course became the Caste Society. In a sentence therefore, it is implied here by the author's that Caste and Tribe are a) Social Constructs, b) There is no genetic basis to Caste or Tribe, c) However, due to demographic segregation and endogamy, acting in conjunction with such social processes of status and rank differentiation as was unleashed by the faunal and human dispersal, that Caste and Tribes all as social entities came into being entirely due to social processes and not genetic ones!

    19. Kindly check my website www.rockartofindia.webs.com where I have just uploaded an album containing some human activity depictions in the Rock paintings of the Vindhyas. I tend to think that there are amongst these rock-art depictions which suggest that from the Upper Palaeolithic through the Mesolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic and the Iron-Age, people continued to live in the Vindhyan Uplands. Subsequent disappearance of fauna such as is depicted and of people is entirely due to the climatic change engendered by the onset of the Holocene. Of course, if you have read Ester Boserup's The Conditions of Agricultural growth (ref. to be cited!) then in this book she has argued that in the course of agricultural growth population tends to act as an independent variable. I am here and therefore suggesting that the out-migration of people from the Vindhyas was also as a consequence of population growth. archaeologically speaking

    20. What then are the evident weaknesses of this article, archaeologically speaking. In a sentence, we are left wondering if the archaeogenetic evidence marshalled in this paper is actually borne-out by any sort of archaeological corroboration by way of material culture remains which would confirm such a theory, or, as the case may be, refute it? For in the long-run such a theory may not stand at all without archaeological corroboration which are too simplistic to state just yet, in this review.

    The main questions in such a regard are:

    a) If an Out of Africa and eventually into India model of Modern Human populations has been accepted by the authors, as does seem to be the case, then even if archeogenetics supports such a theory or a hypothesis, then where indeed is the archaeological evidence which would support such a claim? If, as has been proposed by the authors, the ASI (the Ancestral South Indian group) arrived here some 75,000 BP, and following a part sea part land route out of eastern Africa through West Asia and into Southern Asia then with which Middle Pleistocene archaeological assemblages and industries would the authors connect such a migration?

    b) It has been stated that both the ANI (the Ancestral North Indian) and the ASI populations are genetically radically different from other groups such as the Chinese and the Europeans. This is very well. However, it has been stated that the Hominin migrations out of africa passed through India, most likely northern and central India, onwards to South East Asia and the Far East. Where are the archaeological traces of the modern humans having taken such a route, or at least their presence in northern and central India, during middle to late Pleistocene?

    c) Perhaps the authors might consider including such evidence in a future publication.

    Paul Mellars Going East

    21. An alternate route, Dear Students,to resolving this seeming impasse is to take a look at Paul Mellars's article given above. By virtue of being an archaeologist who has almost ceaselessly worked on the issue of Human Evolution or Human Origins and the archaeology connected with it, Professor Mellars has made many splendid contributions in such a direction. I have here uploaded a key article which throws some light on our debate at hand: why and how did the first of modern human groups find it necessary to migrate out of Africa, and why and how did they possibly come to the South Asian region and populate it. Let us read this important paper together.

    22. Now it is my pleasure to upload an article by my colleague Dr. Shanti Pappu, Director of the Sharma Center for Heritage Education, Pune, as also a Professor of Prehistory at the Department of Archaeology, Deccan College, Pune, who has just published a fantastically well-researched paper, on her excavations of a palaeolithic site in Tamil Nadu called Attirampakkam. Just look at the wonderful plates of hand-axes which she suggests in this article may be as old as 1.5 MYA, and therefore connected with the Homo erectus ancestor.

    ...........

    Bibliography

    Agrawal, D.P., Bhatt, D.K., Kusumgar, S., Pant, R.K. 1981. The neogene/quaternary boundary in India: a review. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science. 90(2): 111-13.

    Boserup, E. Conditions of Agricultural Growth. Chicago. Aldine.

    Reich, D., Kumarasamy, T., Patterson, N., Price, L. A., Singh, L. 2009. Reconstructing Indian Population History. Nature 461 (24): 489-94.

    Romero, I., Mallick, C.B., Liebert, A., Crivellaro, F., Chaubey, G., Itan, Y., Metspalu, M., Eaaswarkhanth, M., Pitchappan, R., Villems, R., Teich, D., Singh, L., Thangaraj, K., Thomas, M.G., Swallow, D.M., Lahr, M.M., Kivisild, T. 2012. Herders of Indian and European Cattle Share Their Predominant Allele for Lactase Persistence. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29(1):249-60. doi: 10.1093/molbev/msr 190.

    Singh, J.P., Sengupta, G. (Eds). 1991. The Archaeology of North Eastern India (NEHU History Series). Delhi: Sangam Books.

    Mellars, P. 2006. Going East: New Genetic and Archaeological Perspectives on the Modern Human Colonization of Eurasia. Science. 313 (5788): 796-800.

    Pappu, S. http://www.antiquity.ac.uk/projgall/pappu297/

    https://www.sciencemag.org/content/331/6024/1596.short

    Sonakia, A. http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/the-narmada-fossil-files/996409/

    Sankhyan, A.R. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9034953

    Rajendran, P. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=emoMAQAAMAAJ&q=P+Rajendran+human+fossil+find&dq=P+Rajendran+human+fossil+find&hl=en&sa=X&ei=pilRU5e5CI-IrAeHuIGYAw&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg

    Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. http://press.princeton.edu/titles/5313.html

    Dennell, R. 2008. The Palaeolithic Settlement of Asia. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

    Kennedy, K.A.R. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=W6zQHNavWlsC&pg=PA416&lpg=PA416&dq=K.A.R+Kennedy+archaeology&source=bl&ots=E3RgeF0Y3W&sig=X3vdyEZKcvayvj1xfq4bJgwMm88&hl=en&sa=X&ei=diZRU7MRyZSuB_7BgYgF&ved=0CDoQ6AEwBA

    (Cont'd.)

    .............

    Thank you,

    Ajay

  • Field Work at Chuna Dari on 15.1.14

    Field Work at Chuna Dari on 15.1.14

    by

    Ajay Pratap

    Friends,

    A doctoral student of mine and I have just concluded a day-long field trip at Likhaniya Dari and Chuna Dari rock art sites of Mirzapur under the ICHR funded research project "The Documentation and Analysis of the Rock Art of Mirzapur District, Uttar Pradesh". This was with the aim to assess the impact of the climatic as well as Human impact (Michael B. Schiffer's N and C Transforms, for those in the know!) on rock art. This has been a year of a severe hot weather, an overbearing Monsoon and an extreme Winter in Eastern India. Here, thus and therefore and thereafter, are some pictures assessing such impacts at Likhaniya Dari painted shelter (LKH) and at Chuna Dari (CHD 1). Do let us know what you feel at drajayprt@yahoo.com. Kindly bear with us for further text and picture addendums.

    Fieldwork on 16th jan 2014.doc 125

    Fieldwork on 16th jan 2014.doc 143

    Fieldwork on 16th jan 2014.doc 151

    Fieldwork on 16th jan 2014.doc 138

    It happens only in Mirzapur, that a walk on the cliff above the Chuna Dari Site 1 painted shelter, may reveal a rock or two with such Cupules as these.

    DSCN2070

    Here is a relevant citation from Siveking (1960, 99):

    "VIII. RUDE CAVE PAINTINGS AND MARKS ON ROCKS.

    1g. Copies of a few (out of many) rude Aboriginal Paintings (mostly in red colour in the original) in caves and rock shelters of the Vindhya Hills; and specimens of red 'Geru' Stone with the colour derived from which the Paintings were done. Pieces of this red 'Geru' stone were found, already rubbed down into facets, in the earth in the floors of the caves and rock shelters, along with stone implements, thus proving that the 'Geru' colour must have been rubbed down and used by the same prehistoric aborigines who made the stone implements. This is probably a most important and significant discovery!

    2g. A few impressions of 'Cup Marks' on Rocks. (for want of space, only a very few examples, from the northerly scarp of the Vindhyas, are here exhibited.)"

    DSCN2401

    If you so feel like seeing some further pictures related with these Cupules, and other new archaeological features we have documented then you may kindly like to visit and go through the relevant photo albums on our research project website http://www.rockartofindia.webs.com/

    More later, mainly about the positive identification or pattern match of the predator-skull found at CAR 14 (See Album called Bones...). That is to say that the animal skull seems according to its shape given on the Wikipedia:

    Canis lupus pallipes

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_wolf

    Consulted on 20.1.2014

    as that of an Indian Grey Wolf. The Canines as shown match almost exactly with our field specimen which incidentally was left in situ to observe at a later date the n and c transforms which would likely operate on it,which is I believe called Taphonomy. The same is the case with all the bones which we have documented in the field and as appearing on the above given website URL (Universal Resource Locator).

    More later.

    Some lectures on human evolution:

    http://media.hhmi.org/hl/11Lect1.html

    For your listening pleasure!

    ...

    Bibliography

    Pratap, A. 2013. Some Considerations of Chuna Dari Site 1 (CHD 1): aspects of rock art conservation in India and its presentation to the public. Research Today. 1(2): 57-63

    Sieveking, G. de G. 1960. Morhana Pahar: Ot the Mystery of A.C. Carlyle. Man 60: 98-100.

    (Cont'd.)
    ...

    Thanks,

    Ajay

  • Field Life in India or The Journeys and Journals of an Indian Archaeologist

    Field Life in India or The Journeys and Journals of an Indian Archaeologist

    By

    Ajay Pratap

    Author's note: Friends, some of us have been especially fortunate to have had a chance to read Valentine Ball's famous work of 1880 called Jungle Life in India. Herewith, I shall try to attempt a contemporary rendering in that style, translation-ally speaking.

    Keywords: Black Buck, Wild Dogs, Birds, Indian Grey Wolf, Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Mongoose, Indian bison, Sus scrofa, Elephus maximus, Tigris tigris, King Cobra, Green Snake

    ...

    It would be a good question whether putting your children in an Indian school-hostel from very early-on predisposes both the student and the parents to grow-up appreciating Indian Archaeology. For hostel life in India requires nearly just as many journeys as does the practice of Indian archaeology. Equally, what sort of a field vehicle is used by an Indian archaeologist, is of the utmost importance: in my case, this was a 350cc Royal Enfield motorcycle, but then that was just during the second year of my doctoral fieldwork in the Santal Parganas District. In the first of these, like most of my doctoral colleagues, I walked a full year surveying for archaeological sites, visiting tribal usually the Paharia Tribe's villages for ethnographic surveys; however, on longer walkathons in the Rajmahal Hills, where the Paharia reside to this day, one was bound to come across numerous Santal villages too which are situated in these hills.

    Welcome here to some anecdotes which I shall hope shall thrill you to some extent. However, whether that happens or not, please rest assured that such stories as I shall try to recount here, are all almost true. I am writing this post primarily to suggest that relics of the past are necessarily those locations where humans dwelt in one sort of configuration (e.g. those living within a forest and those without etc.) or the other. In any case, the fact that these locations were only partly shared with wild animals at the time these relicts were actively dwelt within and without, by human populations, that now today that they should entirely be dwelt within and without, mostly by wild animals, surely needs an archaeological comment. Thank you. Ajay

    Keywords: Black Buck, Wild Dogs, Birds, Indian Grey Wolf, Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), Mongoose, Indian bison, Sus scrofa, Elephus maximus, Tigris tigris, King Cobra, Green Snake

    The Vindhyan countryside, heading southward from Benaras, is simply glorious. Even if the actual forest cover has depleted and shrunk miserably. The Imperial Gazetteer of Mirzapur is a very good place to start to acquaint yourself with this district. Archaeologists tend to become naturalists more from necessity than choice.

    Several times, in my archaeological work in Mirzapur, and thus and therefore, in the course, several times, of having driven upwards of 150 kilometers in a day, the mind tends to wander, although this condition is alleviated somewhat by some small gossip with students accompanying, some tea at a wayside Dhaba.

    It is just sheer pleasure to behold a very large herd of the very large and sturdy Nilgai, who quite suddenly stampede helter-skelter, as once upon a time we saw, while surveying within a few miles of Sidh Nath Ki Dari.

    One of our rock painting sites, now labelled as WYN 1 or Wyndham 1, occurs some distance inside the Barkacha Forest Reserve, at Wyndham Falls. The said painting at WYN 1 is a painting at a height, located some fifteen to twenty feet high up on the wall of a sandstone cliff right beside the Falls. Standing at this vantage, one is also afforded a glorious view down to the waterfalls. As I looked down at the gushing and frothing waters below, one field trip there, I saw a very big Mongoose dart out of the bushes, dipping its snout into the water, and in a matter of seconds, making off with a huge fish. This one was remarkably hefty no doubt on account of such a high protein diet.

    Our Indian Grey Wolf sighting was a little deeper inside the Barkachha Forest Reserve. As my students and I were returning bone-tired after miles of trekking and recording a reasonable amount of rock-art data, our field guide tapped me on my shoulder gently and then whispered, "Sahab, Janwar!". My first thought was to say a quick prayer as my adrenalin jumped just in case it was a 500 kilogram striped big and very very clawy sort of Janwar. Then, he pointed towards it and my student and I were very very lucky to have our first sighting of a fully grown Grey Indian Wolf. It stood very still, turning its head backwards to take a good look at us. Then his curiosity satisfied, he looked forward and loped-away for his evening constitutional.

    Another time, as we were driving in Mirzapur, on a road with paddy-fields on either side of the road, down in the plains part of the countryside, three or four fox-like animals darted across the road, however, not fast enough for us to miss noticing that they all had black, I mean absolutely black fur. Wild dogs? I'm still searching the Internet and such documents as we have on Mirzapur for any evidence to support this claim.

    ...

    Chronologically speaking, I saw the Rohtas Fort on the Bihar side of the Kaimurs, first. In the early 1980s, it was still very very grand, but hopelessly desolate and village speak had it that it was infested with the most dreaded dacoits of the area. The Banda Fort, I saw in the early 1990s, and although there were about two guards of the Archaeological Survey of India, posted here at that time, the location was still very very wild at night, indeed in our perambulation of this fort, we managed to locate an active Leopard-den complete with bones of various kinds and descriptions. There are some ten very outstanding buildings within the perimeter walls of this fort, and they were all and very similarly very ruined. The Chunar Fort is perhaps the very best of them as it is well-maintained. However, how many tourists actually make it there is a burning question. Finally, the Vijaygarh Fort at Robertsganj, which we visited this year. It is almost completely wild and equally ruined. If there should be a moral to this story then that should be evident. Isn't it?

    -----

    Although the only living example or a live specimen black buck, which my students ever saw, was a young fawn, with it's characteristic size, body and horns was one that was a Paltu or friendly one, by the gate guards of the Chandraprapha wildlife sanctuary...Without doubt this species has been hunted viciously in it's habitat for a long time now. I remember that when I visited the Nawab's Gallery at the State Museum at Lucknow, a few years ago, I was stunned to see that amongst the many many period pieces of weapons and arms of that period on display here, there was a certain dagger of metal which was mounted on the reverse of a Blackbuck deer's horns. It was truly difficult to decide which side would have inflicted a worse injury, but let's assume the side with the Black Buck's curvilinear horns would.

    The good luck which did visit us however during this trip was that my student Shri P.K. Singh and I and our most helpful and jolly field assistants on this trip to Vijaygarh were indeed also quite able to see some three or four Black Partridges or Kala Teetar walking about in a group in some very distinctly Mirzapuri Bamboo thickets on a high ridge. That was a glorious sight indeed!

    The Mirzapuri Bamboo is quite thin and well-rounded, as would appear from a look at these Bamboo thickets,and are well-shaped to make such spears as are often depicted in the rock-paintings of Ghormangar and Harni-Harna painted rock shelters at the base of the Vijaygarh promontory. Here there are numerous such spears shown in the rock art depicting rhino-hunts by groups of prehistoric hunters.

    ...

    As is usual one doctoral student helps another, thus it is that I was also thus privileged, once upon a time to have assisted two of my colleagues in some mundane fieldwork chores like taking their field photos for them and the such like.

    Thus variously I found myself at such very distant climes from the Rajmahal hills, the field for my own doctoral fieldwork, and such places as the Juanga Hills of Keonjhar and the Gond Hills of Adilabad.

    Thus and therefore, apart from gaining a comparative view of shifting cultivation in the Rajmahal hills, with these far flung places which also have shifting cultivation systems intact to this day, I also had a chance to see and hear something of the wildlife of these respective areas! This was a good enough pay-off.

    Until the 1980s, in Keonjhar, the Juanga shifting cultivators are probably the best artists in the world, in that they paint their huts with some of the most wonderful colours and designs, which I have ever seen anywhere. Again, and until the 1980s, the Gond shifting cultivators of Adilabad district of Andhra Pradesh, were amongst one of the most wonderful singers and dancers as compared with any people anywhere else. In fact, and as a matter of fact, they were at that time, also surely and with great difficulty winning a very tough livelihood from a fast receding forest cover.

    In Keonjhar, I saw a fair-sized parrot-green snake, which was resting in the open, however upon sensing our footfalls, it jerked into motion, whisking its girth away from us, and into the nearby bushes.

    The King Cobra, is a grand sight to behold in the wild. This particular one was comfortably ensconced next to the chicken-coop of a Gond hut, to the right hand side of this particular and frequented village road, right in the middle of the forest range of Adilabad. On hearing our Willys jeep approaching as we were leaving this area, it must have been alarmed to the extent that it whipped across the road at blinding speed even as I applied the not too new nor very effective brakes of this very second world war sort of but delightful roofless jeep. I saw this grandest of our jungle creatures spanning at a time the entire width of this forest road which was easily more than ten feet wide.

    In both cases, and to more than a marginal extent of difference, a lot of surprise is followed by lots and lots of fear and then laughter.

    (Cont'd)

    ..................

    Thank you,

    Ajay

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